48th Human Rights Council Reports

Report on International Order


All sources used to draft the reports on the 12th meeting can be found here Reports drafted by Amine Meharzi on September 20th, 2021.

Composition of the HRC

Mister Vice-President Ebyan Mahamed Salah opened the meeting on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order on the 20th of September at 15:00

Mr. Sewanyana Livingstone, Independent Expert on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order: First, the Independent Expert grieved for the people who died during the pandemic and assured that the efforts of the deceased health workers will never be forgotten. Then he stated that he would limit his report mostly on the importance of an effective, inclusive and "renewed multilateralism" that will help address future challenges. The Independent Expert mentioned the essentiality of the equitable distribution of vaccines. The uneven distribution led to a "two-track pandemic" in which almost the entire population developed states was vaccinated, while developing states had limited access to vaccination.

ACT-A (Access to COVID-19 Tools), an initiative of the WHO, faced challenges related to international collaboration for equitable distribution of vaccines. The Independent Expert mentioned six issues hindering the solution-finding to the pandemic:

  • Vaccine nationalism: Efforts by states to enter into bilateral deals with pharmaceutical compagnies that exclude low- and middle-income countries from vaccination.

  • Vaccine diplomacy: Use of vaccines as a diplomatic weapon to promote geopolitical interests. The Independent Expert therefore welcomed that countries with a vaccine surplus share these doses with the COVAX facility to distribute them to 92 low- and middle-income countries.

  • The WTO's Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS): Developed countries are not ready to waiver these barriers to facilitate local production in developing countries.

  • Export bans: Creating practical impossibility for developing states in vaccine production due to lack of raw material.

  • Lack of funds for WHO: Its member-states are welcomed to contribute financially to maintain the efficiency of the organization.

  • Exacerbated unilateral coercive measures: Affect the well-being of the most vulnerable such as women, children or disabled people.

The Independent Expert's demands to overcome the crisis:

  • Increasing fiscal space for the countries impacted by the pandemic: This will then prevent a massive global debt crisis and enable equitable economic recovery.

  • Fixing the global tax system to increase the fiscal space for most affected the countries. The recent international agreement endorsed by the G20 is unbalanced and has to be renewed according to the Independent Expert.

  • Establish a global fund for social protection to shield the populations of the most affected countries in the event of future pandemics.

  • Forums of discussion must be more inclusive and integrate all stakeholders, not just states and regional organizations.

  • Renewing multilateralism through reforming the Security Council or the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

The Independent Expert finished his speech by reminding the world of the "existential threat of the pandemic" and reiterated the importance of multilateralism, international cooperation and solidarity to overcome future pandemics and the issue of climate change.

Statements by States and International Organizations

Egypt on behalf of the Arab Group: The group thanked the independent expert for his report. It agreed with the fact that multilateralism had to be renewed to face the pandemic. The Arab Group also stressed that the international order must be democratic and equitable. Finally, the group showed its concerns for the disparity in the vaccine distribution between developed and developing states and stressed the importance for cooperation to eradicate the pandemic.

China in behalf of group the country: First it stated the essentiality of an equitable and democratic international order as well as true multilateralism in order to protect human rights. Secondly, China stated that the world needed "true multilateralism" based on win-win relations, conducted dialogue and mutual respect for cultural diversity. Thirdly, China stated that states needed "to join hands to protect common values" such as freedom, human rights, justice, development or democracy.

Armenia showed its appreciation for the report. For Armenia, the world was facing many difficulties. Armenia then stated that it always supported multilateralism, international institutions such as the UN or the WHO and that it advocated facilitated and unhindered access to COVID-19 vaccinations worldwide. Finally, Armenia mentioned the Secretary-General's call for a global cease-fire during the pandemic. It then asked the Independent Expert what he would say to the country who not agree for this global cease-fire. about the countries who do not plea for ceasefire.

Bangladesh first thanked the Independent Expert for his report. The country then stressed the importance for a democratic international order, solidarity and cooperation to address contemporary problems. Bangladesh considered the COVID-19 vaccine as a global public good and access to the vaccine as human right. It then stated its grief due to vaccine nationalism and profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies. Finally, Bangladesh recommended that global and equitable vaccine distribution was the only solution for the pandemic.

Egypt agreed with points of the report such as establishing an equitable democratic world order and to revive multilateralism during the pandemic. The country stated that full commitment and coordination between the stakeholders were the key to defeat the pandemic. Vaccine diplomacy and greater financial flows to developing countries affected by the pandemic would ensure fair access to the people and would also help escaping the pandemic.

Iraq thanked the Independent expert for his report. For Iraq, the pandemic has been the greatest challenge since the Second World War due to its effects on various human rights. According to Iraq, solidarity, international cooperation, equitable access to vaccines and technology were most urgently needed. Finally, Iraq mentioned the problem of vaccine nationalism.

Indonesia stated its support for the Independent Expert's report. It agreed with the need of renewing multilateralism and strengthening solidarity. For Indonesia vaccine nationalism and certain national policies hinder the efforts against the pandemic. Local manufacturers have to be supported in order to enable equitable access to the vaccine. Indonesia then stated that it had given 100 million vaccines to its population. Finally, more action had to be taken according to Indonesia such as "democratize" pharmaceutical enterprises.

South Africa showed its support for points within the report such as the need of a renewed multilateralism and more equitable and democratic world order. The pandemic has refrained the sustainable development, impacted human rights and increased inequalities in the world. South Africa then stated its participation in the COVAX Facility of ACT-A and how the south African President endorsed multilateralism.

Venezuela stated its support for China's statement in the name of a group of countries and for the Independent Expert's report. Venezuela agreed that multilateralism had to be renewed, that vaccines needed to be distributed equitably around the world, and that unilateral coercive measures weakened results achieved so far. Finally, Venezuela called for countries to lift the MCUs in order to achieve an equitable and democratic international order.

Kenya supported the idea of strengthening the multilateral system in order to facilitate the equitable distribution of vaccines. The country mentioned the African Vaccine Trust (AVAT) that guaranties vaccine doses in Africa. Kenya stated that developed states should keep helping developing countries in realizing the SDGs. Finally, Kenya showed its support for the WHO and that it needed more financial support to face this and future pandemics.

Cuba agreed with the recommendations of the report such as renewing multilateralism to overcome contemporary issues. Cuba stated its solidarity as it helped in previous years many countries through the Henry Reeve Medical Contingent. The country also mentioned its medical achievements as it produced vaccines against the COVID-19 and its readiness to supply them for interested countries.

Russia supported points of the report such as increasing global solidarity. Russia then stated the importance of ensuring a non-discriminatory approach to certification of the vaccines and its reticence to abandon the TRIPS agreement in terms of COVID-19 vaccines. Multilateral cooperation is the key to overcome the crisis according to Russia. Russia also asked the Independent Expert's opinion on countries engaging in vaccine nationalism and reminded him that he did not have a mandate to propose reforms of UN organisms.

Sri Lanka thanked the Independent Expert for his report and supported the idea of remodeling the multilateralism and creating an adjusted international order. Sri Lanka stated how the country had been affected by the virus. Increased global solidarity in form of equitable vaccine distribution and waiving intellectual property rights were needed as developing countries were suffering. Finally, Sri Lanka requested to the Independent Expert to consider its points.

Malaysia thanked the Independent Expert and agreed for a renewed multilateralism. The country noted its support for WHO initiatives and for the promotion of discovering new vaccines and medicines through collective efforts. Finally, Malaysia showed its concerns due to inequitable vaccine distribution and asked how the Independent Expert would solve this problem.

Namibia stated that human rights could only be fully achieved in an equitable and democratic international order. Only through the exchange of information can global challenges be overcome. Namibia mentioned its concerns in regard to vaccine nationalism and vaccine inaccessibility and therefore shared the report's recommendation for the pharmaceutical compagnies and private sector. For Namibia the world had to consider deepened cooperation and solidarity through distributing vaccines and removing barriers on the TRIPS to solve the issues related to the pandemic.

China (on its behalf) agreed with the Independent Expert that multilateralism had to be renewed to solve current and future problems. China stated that western countries stated false information about other countries and put discriminating policies in place. China welcomed the international community to blame such acts and promote multilateralism and cooperation. Finally, China stated its willingness to cooperate with other countries in order to create win-win relations and ensure peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and worldwide freedom.

Pakistan thanked the Independent Expert for the report and agreed for the need for reinvigorated solidarity and multilateralism. Pakistan stated that the SDGs faced challenges and extreme poverty increased during the pandemic. Therefore, developing states should benefit from debt relief initiatives. Pakistan also mentioned the problems of vaccine nationalism and the TRIPS. Finally, the country demanded the Independent Expert how human rights machinery could help in solving pandemic related challenges.

Syria thanked the Independent Expert for his report and supported the importance of international cooperation and solidarity. Syria mentioned that unilateral policies and coercive measures of some states were problematic for the global action and health and prolonged the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sudan joined the Arab Group statement and thanked the Independent Expert for his report. Sudan noted the gap between developing and developed states in terms of vaccination remained even though the world was aware of the difficulties faced by developing states. For Sudan, solidarity, a transformed international order and strengthened cooperation was needed to eliminate the pandemic.

Algeria agreed with the Independent Expert on creating an equitable and democratic international order to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic. Algeria supported the equitable distribution of vaccines and the idea of increasing democratic cooperation between all stakeholders.

Uganda stated that despite its efforts, it needed the international cooperation to deal with infections, deaths and extreme poverty within its borders. Uganda noted that developing states suffered from fragile health systems and had to undertake austerity measures due to economical crises. According to Uganda, these countries would highly benefit from equitable vaccine distribution, unconditional loans and shared information.

The Maldives stressed the importance for cooperation and international solidarity since the COVID-19 knows "no borders" and is extremely interconnected. It stressed the need for coordinated and cooperative approach during the pandemic since "our shared future" was endangered. Finally, the Maldives asked the Independent Expert to state the key elements for a successful and effective international system.

Malawi shared the vision of the Independent Expert concerning deepened multilateralism. It showed its concerns regarding vaccine nationalism and intellectual property rights and the weakness of the global health architecture. Malawi supported the idea of creating a global fund for social protection in order to protect vulnerable people living in developing states in the case of future pandemics. Finally, Malawi called to cancel the debt of the Least Developing Countries so they could recover faster.

Chad agreed that the world needed a new, more effective and inclusive multilateralism to face the COVID-19 pandemic. Chad stated its concerns due to the vaccine nationalism and the vaccine diplomacy since health-related issues were used as weapons of negotiation hindering the equitable distribution. Chad thanked the WHO for its ACT-initiative that stressed the importance of equitable vaccine distribution.

Belarus stated that multilateralism and global commitments such as the SDGs were under serious threat due to the pandemic. Belarus stressed that also unilateral sanctions and conditional agreements were as dangerous as they affected millions of people, sustainable development and global recovery. Therefore, Belarus requested the Independent Expert to take the unilateral policies of EU states into consideration in his next report.

Iran agreed with the Independent Expert on the importance of a reinvigorated multilateralism during the pandemic. Iran stressed that the world was in need for an equitable international order but unilateral forces were causing division and reinforcing inequity and discrimination. Iran mentioned its sadness over the sanctions imposed on developing states by developed states during the pandemic, which led to more poverty.

Tunisia stated that the multilateral system had to be renewed to achieve effective results in global health and economy. According to Tunisia, coordinated and increased cooperation, solidarity as well as an equitable and democratic international order were now needed. Tunisia mentioned the Resolution 2532 stating the need for immediate and comprehensive ceasefire and humanitarian truce. Finally, Tunisia reiterated the importance of equitable vaccine distribution.

Bolivia highlighted the gaps between the Global South and western countries in terms of vaccination. Bolivia stated its rejection concerning the vaccine diplomacy and nationalism since these policies had a negative impact on the recovery of the world and the implementation of the SDGs. Therefore, equitable vaccine distribution, deepened cooperation as well as a democratic and renewed international order were proposed.

After the Right of Reply for the "Interactive dialogue with the Working Group on arbitrary detention", the session was closed by the Vice-President by 16:00 on 20th September 2021


Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development for Peace