50th Human Rights Council Reports

Report on Syrian Arab Republic


June 29th, 2022: Interactive Dialogue with the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic

All sources used to draft the report can be found here and here. The report was drafted by Emanuel Konan on June 29th, 2022

Composition of the HRC

Panel Discussion

Vice-President of the Human Rights Council, Katharina Stasch, opened the interactive dialogue with the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic on the 29th of June 2022.

Mr. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic, began his statement by stating that the Syrian people are still victims of extreme violence in their country. Despite a decline of interest due to the Ukrainian crisis, violence in Syria is still escalating. A discussion has arisen on the possible closure of the last border crossing for humanitarian aid. Mr. Pinheiro also emphasised the urgent need for humanitarian aid in Syria, a country in which more than 12 million people faced acute food insecurity. Additionally, the parties to the conflict have not fulfilled their obligation to allow rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian relief and citizens, thus not respecting the principles of international humanitarian law. Mr. Pinheiro continued his statement by highlighting the poor living conditions of people in Syria. Indeed, parts of the country are still witnessing violence. Moreover, many of the water and alimentary facilities, essential to the survival of the civilian populations, are destroyed. At the same time, civilians live in fear of expressing themselves, fearing arbitrary detentions, torture and possibly death. Many families remain worried about the disappearance of their loved ones who have been arbitrarily detained. The Commission attempted to reassure member states, highlighting the study published by the General Secretary in accordance with resolution 76/228. The study is looking into ways to shed light on the fate of missing persons. Moreover, Mr. Pinheiro voiced his support for Syrian families of missing and disappeared persons and called for the creation of an independent mechanism with an international mandate to coordinate and consolidate claims regarding missing persons and persons subject to enforced disappearance. Mr. Pinheiro also expressed concern about the 40,000 children who have been deprived of their most basic rights and are at constant risk of being injured, killed, or trafficked. The Commission then called attention to the gender-based discrimination and violence that continues in Syria while also reporting that humanitarian workers were being targeted in attacks. They highlighted two cases, one in which a Red Crescent nurse was killed and another where a doctor of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) had been stabbed. The commission reminded the members of the importance of having an international community that cares about the well-being of its various members. To conclude, Mr Pinheiro reminded everyone that the Syrian conflict has not ended. He emphasised that the humanitarian situation is worse than ever, and states must respond to the emergency call of the Syrian people to reach a negotiated political solution for the restoration of the basic human rights that have been so long denied.

Country Concerned

The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR):

The SAR representative reiterated its rejection of the Commission's mandate and its report. The representative called on the Council to put an end to this politicised mandate, which they believe is based on sources that lack credibility and objectivity. The SAR representative argued that the report was misleading and ignored the challenges Syria continues to face as a result of the war waged against foreign occupation of its territory. The representative rejected the accusations levelled against Syria through this Commission's report, which like its previous report, puts the political agenda ahead of humanitarian and legal considerations. Thus, the representative argued that the unilateral measures and coercive sanctions that were taken against SAR, while being pre-orchestrated, aimed to deprive the Syrian people of their fundamental rights and to prevent the country from returning to development. The SAR representative expressed concern about the involvement of foreign powers in sponsoring separatist and terrorist militias against the SAR and civilian populations. The representative also reminded the amnesty measures taken by the Syrian government in the process of reconciliation between the provinces. Moreover, the SAR representative opposed any new international mechanisms that aimed to undermine the sovereignty of Syria and called for the lifting of coercive economic measures as well as the departure of foreign military forces occupying Syrian territory.

Panel discussion

The European Union (EU) thanked the Commission of Inquiry for this update and reiterated its full continued support for the report on the massive violations of human rights conducted by the Syrian regime and its allies. The EU reiterated its strong concern about the high level of sexual and gender-based violence and the persistent violation against children and persons with disabilities by the Syrian regime. The EU expected from the UN a report on the issue of disappeared persons. The EU called upon the Syrian regime to engage meaningfully in the political process under United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254. The EU also called for new cross-border aid in line with humanitarian principles that allow safe access for humanitarian organisations including in places of detention. The EU emphasised that accountability is key and called to have the situation referred to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

Iceland, on behalf of the Nordic-Baltic Countries, stated that Syria has committed massive human rights abuses and violations including torture, killing, and enforced disappearances. The representative demanded all parties to the conflict stop systemic human rights violations and abuses in compliance with international humanitarian law. Iceland emphasised that the people of Syria have well-earned justice for the crimes continuously committed against them. The representative stressed the importance of the Syrian regime engaging with the political process under United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 to create peace and security in Syria. The representative concluded by asking the Commissioner what can be done to achieve accountability and what more can be done for those who are missing or in arbitrary detention.

Belgium condemned the multiple violations and abuses endured by children. The representative argued that the Syrian government and allies deprived children of education by destroying facilities and by using them in the conflict. Belgium also condemned sexual and gender-based violence and urged all parties to immediately stop all violations. Due to the limited time given, the representative of Belgium didn't finish the speech.

Switzerland thanked the Commission for its investigation. The representative called all parties involved in the conflict to reach at least a ceasefire. The representative also called for a renewal of the cross-border mechanism by the Security Council to allow safe humanitarian access to persons in need. In conclusion, the representative ended by asking the commission what will be the impact on human rights in Syria in the event of a non-renewal of the cross-border mechanism.

Liechtenstein thanked the Commission for the update on the human rights situation in the Syrian Arab Republic. The representative expressed strong concern about the thousand people who disappeared. The representative of Liechtenstein stated the fact that family members are searching for disappeared people on their own under the risk of arrest or extortion. As accountability is imperative, the representative called for the response of the international mechanism through the International Criminal Court for valuable work and to ensure accountability in solving this situation.

Qatar stated that this report coincides with the conflict in Syria. According to the representative, the Syrian regime has refused the request for a political transition and instead chose a military solution. Consequently, crimes have been perpetrated in the form of human rights violations and destruction of infrastructures as the UN report has documented. The solution proposed by the representative is an extension of the United Nations Security Council resolution on providing humanitarian assistance through the cross-border mechanism. The representative concluded by stating the importance of a recheck of a political solution while keeping in mind United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254.

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) took note of the report from the Commission of Inquiry. The representative reminded the council that the crisis in Syria continues to deteriorate particularly in the territory, not in control of the state but controlled by non-state actors and groups which are responsible for all disappearances happening in those areas. The representative expressed its full support in continuing to support international humanitarian assistance in Syria. Aligning itself with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254, the representative reiterated its desire for a political solution that puts an end to the crisis.

Japan stated that those responsible for human rights violations must respond to their acts in front of the International Court of Justice. Japan called upon all parties in conflict to cooperate to ensure a ceasefire. Japan reiterated its commitment to working closely with international partners.

Ecuador expressed concerns about the violations of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic. The representative joined the call to bring a cease-fire in the long term to allow the Syrian population access to humanitarian aid without restrictions. Ecuador encouraged parties to establish the necessary conditions to ensure that wide-ranging negotiations can be carried out. The representative called the International Court of Justice for investigations to be carried out for the accountability of those who are responsible for this conflict.

Cuba opposed the mandate of the commission that has been politically manipulated by Western countries. The representative stated that Cuba has always counted on the people and government of Syria to bring about an end to the imposed changes that were put on them. Cuba highlighted its assistance to the people of Syria in the fight against COVID-19 by sending vaccines. The representative of Cuba condemned efforts to destabilise Syria and other countries in the region. Moreover, Cuba called for a peaceful solution in Syria as well as full respect for the Syrian territorial integrity and sovereignty.

Germany aligned the state with the statement given by the EU. Germany reiterated its support for the Commission's mandate. The representative stated that Germany remains gravely concerned about the ongoing violation of human rights and international law across Syria, first and foremost committed by the Syrian regime and its allies. As more than 4 million people are living in extreme conditions in northwest Syria, the representative called the United Nations Security Council for a renewal of the cross-border resolution. The representative also welcomed the Commission of Inquiry's recommendation for the creation of an independent mechanism with an international mandate to coordinate and consolidate claims regarding missing persons.

Iraq took note of the report presented by the Independent Commission, which reflected the catastrophic situation in the country. Iraq stated the belief that only through Syrian dialogue that the Syrian economic crisis could be overcome. The representative emphasised that it is essential to increase international and regional cooperation. The representative highlighted that its approach is a balanced one, supporting cooperation and the United Nations' efforts to facilitate this inter-Syrian dialogue.

Luxembourg fully supported the statement by the EU. Luxembourg stated that the state had provided ongoing support to the commission of inquiry and its important work. The representative strongly condemned any violation of human rights. Luxembourg called for cooperation between members of the Commission of Inquiry to allow humanitarian groups safe access to places of detention. Luxembourg reiterated its full support for efforts to refer the situation in the Syrian Arab Republic to the International Court of Justice.

The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela expressed regret for the loss of lives in Syria and expressed solidarity with the Syrian population. Venezuela repeated its full rejection of the report of the Commission. The representative stated that reports which are mandated at each session show the manipulation of human rights and the politicised use of this council by Western countries in favour of interventionist agendas. Venezuela highlighted that the mandate of interference is an attack against universal objectivity and a violation of the UN Charter principle on non-interference and should not be renewed. Venezuela demanded respect for Syrian sovereignty.

The Vice-President of the Human Rights Council Katharina Stasch closed the 26th meeting of the interactive dialogue with the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic on the 18th of March.

One Hour Break Before Second Session

Mr President Frederico Villegas, President of the Human Rights Council, opened the 27th meeting of the interactive dialogue with the independent International Commission on the Syrian Arab Republic.

The Netherlands aligned itself with the EU and expressed its deepest appreciation for the work of the Commission of Inquiry. The representative reiterated its full support for helping the population in Syria. Concerning the fight for justice, the representative stated that after years of preparing the ground for justice processes, the work is starting to bear fruit with goblins as the first glimmer of hope that accountability is attainable. Due to a limited time, the representative didn't finish the speech but before ending, the representative stated that the Netherlands will continue to stand by the Syrians in a quest for answers about the fate of the missing loved ones.

The Russian Federation stated that the situation in Syria is worsening. The representative highlighted that the main threat remained from terrorist groups that have found shelter in areas that are outside government control. According to the Russian Federation, western countries continued to exercise international political pressure on the Syrian government to shape the process of the Syrian settlement to their advantage. The representative stated that western countries fabricated false reports of the situation to manipulate the council. The Russian Federation emphasised that the report of the Commission while being politicised and biassed ignored the action of states, and conducted a hostile policy against the lawful government of Syria. The representative stated that coercive sanctions against Syria are not acceptable. Moreover, striking the most poorly protected parts of the population stabilisation of the country is only possible through restoring the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Syria.

Australia was not in the room at that moment and thus not able to give their speech on the subject matter.

Egypt wished to convey its deep concern about the human rights situation in Syria and the suffering of Syrian civilians. Egypt asked the members of the Commission to tackle the crisis in Syria with a comprehensive approach, taking into consideration all its causes. The representative called upon all council's attention and stressed that the only option for the government is the one under United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254, which is to find long-term solutions that allow the restoration of the basic infrastructures and provide basic services to citizens.

The People's Republic of China stated that external intervention and imposition of sanctions on Syria cannot help solve the problem but will only bring suffering to the people. China reiterated that the sovereignty, independence, and unity of the Syrian Arab Republic must be effectively respected and protected. The representative stated that the United States and the United Kingdom are undeniably responsible for the suffering of the Syrian people. According to China, the USA refused to apologise or admit guilt. The representative stated that the UK and USA must carry out impartial investigations in two instances involving civilians' deaths, remove illegal unilateral coercive measures on Syria and stop plundering its resources.

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea shared the same concerns as the Syrian Arab Republic whereby they believe that the report is based on false assumptions and needed certain standards of professionalism, impartiality, and independence. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea stated that the report aims to manipulate the Human Rights Council in its political interest. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea emphasised that it will continue directly supporting the Syrian government and people in their struggle against terrorism and safeguarding the national sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Democratic People's Republic of North Korea also called for a conducive environment to allow the promotion and protection of human rights.

Greece expressed support for the mandate of the Commission. Greece called for accountability for all violations of international humanitarian law as well as all violations and abuses of human rights committed by the Syrian authorities, non-state actors, and any other party to the conflict. Greece reiterated its strong concern about reports of social and democratic engineering in all areas throughout Syria, including in the northeast. Greece supported the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254 and called for an immediate, permanent and nationwide resolution.

Albania welcomed all updates of the Commission of Inquiry and reiterated full support for its valuable work. The report showed strong human rights violations perpetrated by all parties involved especially by the regime and its allies. Albania welcomed the proposal of having violations in Syria prosecuted by the international court. Albania highlighted that no military solution will end the conflict and that fighting impunity, accountability, and justice for victims are fundamental in moving Syria towards sustainable peace and reconciliation.

Turkey thanked the members of the Commission of Inquiry for their oral update. Turkey stated that it has always promoted justice to alleviate the suffering of millions of Syrian victims who are subjected to gross violations of human rights and humanitarian law. According to Turkey, the regime remained the main perpetrator of these gross violations, including starvation, disruption of basic services, and obstruction of humanitarian assistance. Turkey called upon the international community to be vigilant. Moreover, Turkey argued that it will continue to support the territorial integrity and unity of Syria.

Belarus stated that it does not support the mandate of the International Commission on Syria and considers it to be politically motivated. Moreover, according to the representative, the experts cannot be considered neutral because they are appointed in the absence of universally recognised criteria. Additionally, the government of Syria does not recognize the mandate of the International Commission. The representative stated that there is no doubt that the United Nations Security Council is against the Syrian people and in the hands of western countries. Belarus, therefore, asked for the abolition of the Commission mandate on Syria.

Sri Lanka expressed its opposition to the specific resolutions and mechanisms. They consider them counterproductive and they undermine the spirit of cooperation required for the promotion and protection of human rights. Sri Lanka reiterated the importance of respecting the principle of sovereignty and non-intervention in internal affairs as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. According to Sri Lanka, unilateral coercive measures have exacerbated the suffering of the civilian population. In conclusion, Sri Lanka congratulated Syria for the steps that have been taken to facilitate the return of those displaced by the conflict.

Georgia expressed deep concern about the Commission's update on the situation in Syria. It revealed a despairing picture painted by persistent failure to respect human rights, international humanitarian law, and the determination to undermine accountability. Georgia took as an example the scenario which was seen executed time and again by Russia and its aggression against Ukraine. Georgia stated that the Syrian regime still ignores the duty to protect the civilian population. Georgia condemned all kinds of deliberate attacks that may amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity. Georgia called again on the need for safe, unhindered and sustained humanitarian access as well as for credible, sustainable, and inclusive political solutions based on Security Council Resolution 2254

Malta aligned itself with the statement delivered by the European Union and thanked the Commission of Inquiry for its latest update. Malta condemned these serious violations and abuses which continue unabated. Malta called on all parties to cease indiscriminate targeting of civilians and civilian infrastructure. The country expressed concerns about the increase of sexual and gender-based violence as they continue to rise and disproportionately affect women children, persons with disabilities and other vulnerable groups. Malta recalled its long-standing position for a credible, sustainable, and inclusive political solution based on the full implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 2254.

The People's Democratic Republic of Lao rejected the work of the Commission of Inquiry. The People's Democratic Republic of Lao welcomed the continued efforts of the Syrian Arab Republic in promoting and protecting human rights including national reconciliation and settlement. The representative, therefore, emphasised that the work of the HRC should be guided by the principles of universality, impartiality, objectivity and non-selectivity, constructive international dialogue, and cooperation.

Kuwait thanked the Commission of Inquiry for its report. Kuwait expressed concern about the continuation of the conflict in Syria and the violations of international humanitarian law. The representative called on all parties to focus on humanitarian aspects to allow humanitarian aid to be provided in a safe way and access to medical facilities. The representative also called for an immediate ceasefire. Kuwait was convinced that it could not be a military solution to the Syrian conflict but that the only solution should be a peaceful solution based on United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254.

Ireland aligned with the statement of the EU and thanked the Commission of Inquiry for its update. Ireland expressed high concern about the attack on civilians, civilians' infrastructure and the humanitarian deterioration in Syria. The representative stressed the need for accountability for human rights violations and abuses and emphasised the importance of ensuring humanitarian access to all people in need. Ireland called for a nationwide ceasefire and urged all parties to work towards a political solution based on the framework set out in Security Council Resolution 2254. Ireland also reiterated its support for the renewal of an independent mechanism with the International Criminal Court to solve the issue in Syria. The representative expressed high concerns about humanitarian healthcare workers who are, unfortunately, working to aid others in circumstances of unimaginable hardship. Consequently, the representative condemned in the strongest terms attacks on health and humanitarian workers. In conclusion, the representative asked members of the commission how can the international community ensure the protection and safety of humanitarian healthcare workers in Syria and ensure that there is accountability for attacks against such workers.

The United States of America (USA) thanked commissioners for their valuable documentation, particularly on the regime's innumerable atrocities. According to the representative, women have been mostly affected by many of the tragedies in Syria. As illustrated by the High Commissioner, women are part of the missing and arbitrarily detained. The effects on women are severe. Women are the most affected in this crisis. They are in charge of their families, and are the ones facing threats, and discrimination. The USA commended the tireless and brave Syrian human rights defenders and survivors, who despite immense suffering, have united to lead the charge in the search for the missing persons. The representative called on the Syrian regime to release arbitrarily detained persons, provide the names and the locations where detainees will be released, and make support services available. The USA looked forward to the UN's recommendations. To hasten the release of those missing and arbitrarily detained in Syria, the representative asked the commission how to coordinate existing efforts to make progress on Missing Persons as called for by Syrian women and their families.

Jordan thanked the members of the Commission of Inquiry. Jordan reiterated the importance of intensifying international efforts to reach a political solution to the crisis in Syria. Indeed, the representative expressed concern about a solution that will put an end to the Syrian people's suffering, safeguard unity and provide conditions for a voluntary return to refugees. Jordan urged the need to take specific measures to improve the daily lives of citizens, particularly in the south of the country. The country supported the efforts made by the UN to support a political solution in line with United Nations Security Council Resolution 2254.

Chile welcomed this oral update of the report. Chile pointed out that many causes are contributing to the conflict and agreed with the desire of the UN to facilitate dialogue in a constructive spirit. Chile expressed its belief that a meaningful outcome to this serious Syrian crisis requires political dialogue, not arms and that the parties concerned must fulfil their obligations under international humanitarian law, the fundamental principles of human rights and various agreements.

The Islamic Republic of Iran continued to regard such country-specific mandates that are imposed on the Council as part of a political pressure campaign against the targeted state as counterproductive. Iran encouraged Syria to fight against extremism and terrorism as well as its resistance to foreign military intervention in order to preserve the territorial integrity of the country. Iran highlighted that members should not forget the fact that the Syrian people have been the victims of a long destabilising policy and brutal war protracted by some regional and international actors. Unlawful military campaigns against Syria have been accompanied by unilateral coercive measures by the USA, UK, and others in violation of international law. According to Iran, the USA is also responsible for polluting and smuggling Syrian national resources and agricultural products out of the country. Iran stated that the Human Right Council should not overlook the real cause of civilians suffering which is continuous foreign military intervention, and foreign terrorism.

Italy urged all parties to immediately end these massive human rights violations and to take all necessary steps to review the cases of missing persons. Italy emphasised the importance of engaging meaningfully with all parties to the conflict to ensure accountability for the committed crimes.

Nicaragua wished to convey a fraternal greeting from the government and people of Nicaragua. The representative stated that all must forge friendly relations based on international human rights law and the United Nations Charter. There have been domestic jurisdictions of states and Nicaragua called on members to abide by universality, neutrality, objectivity, and non-selectivity and this should not be used as an excuse to intervene in the business of countries. Nicaragua felt strongly about any attempts at undermining the sovereignty of states.

Spain endorsed the statement by the EU. The representative thanked the commission for this oral update from the Commission of Inquiry. The humanitarian situation in Syria is still catastrophic, people in Syria have faced the worst since the start of this conflict. Spain reiterated its support of the Commission of Inquiry. Despite the UN's efforts to achieve peace, there has been little progress. According to the representative, there cannot be sustainable peace in Syria without the full, equal and significant participation of women. Spain reiterated the importance of Syrian women's voices to be heard and included in these UN efforts to put an end to the conflict.

The representative of Israel began their statement with examples of the brutality committed by the Syrian regime. According to Israel, the Syrian government has used chemical weapons, chlorine gas and weapons of mass destruction on its people. Israel also noted that the Syrian regime continues to kill and bomb thousands of innocent civilians. Israel stated that the international community must continue to recognise all the crimes committed by the Syrian government.

France reiterated its support for the mandate of the Commission of Inquiry on Syria. The representative highlighted that the bombing of hospitals and schools continues to be carried out in violation of human rights law. France demanded the liberation of those arbitrarily detained and the opening of an investigation for the missing persons. Aligning with the UNSC 2254. According to the representative, France will continue to fight the impunity of those who have perpetrated crimes in Syria.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) started by saying that the Syrian regime and Russian-backed allies systematically violated the human rights of the Syrian people across the country. The representative argued that with indiscriminate attacks against civilians, more people looked for their loved ones. Syrian children have been subjected to 11 years of violence, hunger, and deprivation. The representative reported that the Syrian regime and their allies used sexual and gender-based violence in places of detention. Women, girls, boys, and men have been subjected to rape sexual torture and humiliation. For the UK, enough is enough and this has to stop. Independent monitors must be granted unimpeded access to all detention sites. The representative ended by asking the Commissioner their views on the effect that sexual and gender-based violence has had on specific groups of Syrians for example, those belonging to the LGBT plus community.

Australia, who was absent in the earlier session of the meeting, thanked the Commission for its update on the situation in Syria. Australia remained deeply concerned the number of civilian victims cannot be accurately established. Australia firmly supported the aspiration for the Syrian people to live their lives free from persecution and violence. Australia called on the international community to continue to seek justice for civilian victims of the Syrian regime by supporting accountability processes and holding perpetrators to account. The representative ended by asking commissioners, how can states ensure that a mechanism with an international mandate is inclusive of all victims and survivors, including women, girls, and persons living with a disability.

About the contribution of member states of the commission, Mr Pinheiro indicated four ways to help make the interests of Syrians prevail. The first thing stated is appalling that the funds pledged for humanitarian assistance were not sufficient to address the needs. The second point expressed in this humanitarian work was the imperativeness to establish a mechanism or mandate for the disappeared and the arbitrarily detained. The third point was regarding accountability for crimes. As stated by Mr Pinheiro impunities should go over the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Justice System, as declared in the universal jurisdiction. To conclude, Mr Pinheiro called the member states of the council to start concrete actions to motivate and invite the parties in the conflict in Syria to return to political negotiation.

Final Remarks

Ms Lynn Welchman, Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic expressed concerns on the Syrian situation especially on sexual and gender-based violence and LGBTQ+. The commission is still monitoring sexual and gender-based violence in prisons and detention centres. The commission is going to be following that up in future reports. Moreover, the issue of violence against women is increasing, as it often does in conflict situations. Many reports show that violence against women is on the increase and with no little or no redress or a safe place to go for most women. Indeed, Syrian women are the ones going and looking for their missing relatives at the risk of extortion and abuse. Additionally, Syrian women are also the ones heading the households and trying to get economic aid for their children, their extended families and so on. Besides, there are also unlawful internment camps with children, women, men, and the sick in cruel living conditions, and inhuman treatment. For many of them, there is a solution, which is to be repatriated to be released. The solution for unlawful internment and unlawful detention is, of course, release if no other solution is found. Concerning the question of how the international community could ensure the protection of safety and safety of humanitarian health workers in Syria and ensure accountability, The Commission stated that responsibilities on conflict of hostilities, responsibilities of state supporting conflicts, and upon parties to the conflict in that policy paper will be carefully mentioned. The Commission called on warring parties to comply with international monetary law, but also for those supporting and financing and enabling them to make sure that their partners obey and are compliant with international humanitarian law. Ms Welchman called for respect and protection for humanitarian workers, and for special protection for medical workers in the areas in which violence is particularly active.

Mr Paulo Pinheiro stated that after 11 years of this conflict, everything should be done to try to help those families to clarify the whereabouts and the fate of the missing.

President Frederico Villegas, President of the Human Rights Council expressed the fact that there's a collective responsibility to listen to special mechanisms created in the castle to address the human rights situation. Moreover, the President called upon the importance of the good work of international mechanisms through humanitarian aid to help Syrian people living in precarity, but also to find those missing.


Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development for Peace