Essays 4 Change

Our CD4Peace Team often has expertise in specific topics, or in some cases a great amount of passion on a subject. The essays you will find below reflect but a slim amount of the knowledge and capabilities our interns have. Peruse through these academic papers in order to grow your own knowledge on the covered topics.

The Principle of Proportionality in the Case of Gaza and Israel*

This essay explores the connection between proportionality, jus ad bellum, and jus in bello. It utilizes a metaphor to explain the appropriate analytical style before applying the mechanism to the on-going conflict of Gaza and Israel.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina, Negative Peace, and the Status Quo: The Dayton Accords and Entrenched Ethnic Nationalism

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) ended nearly three decades ago. In that time, peace has been maintained and yet memories of the war and ethnic division still dominate the politics and the lives of the people living there. Because of this, it can be argued that BiH is experiencing what Galtung would describe as Negative Peace. 


The Impact of COVID-19 on Sustainable Development

The Covid-19 pandemic is reshaping our world and has demonstrated the need for stronger responses to crises. The crisis has shown the necessity of efficient health systems and social services worldwide, alongside access to key infrastructure. Without doubt, the Covid pandemic is a setback for sustainable development, as it not only triggered a severe health crisis worldwide but also provoked unrest and uncertainties, impacting all three dimensions of sustainable development: economic, social and environmental. This paper examines what consequences the Covid-19 pandemic has had on the three dimensions of sustainable development and the best
practices for the way forward.


What Factors May Contribute to a Successful United Nations Peacekeeping Mission?

Peacekeeping missions have represented the role of the United Nations in global conflict. After decades of peacekeeping operations, the United Nations have been able to gather data regarding their successes and failures. This paper focuses on the success of the peacekeeping operations while reviewing two factors; possibility of peace in an ongoing conflict and peacekeepers having access to collaboration with regional powers. The successful UN peacekeeping missions include the cases of Sierra Leone and Liberia. However, it also includes the cases of peacekeeping in Rwanda and Bosnia providing examples of absence of the two factors mentioned above.


Peace Education in Post-Conflicts: Côte d'Ivoire Case Study

The Ivorian education system has faced several challenges, including two civil wars, gender and ethnic discrimination, curriculum not sufficiently adapted to post-conflict reconstruction, among other challenges. These constraints, mainly related to violence and the politicization of the school space, have had a considerable impact on the country's peacebuilding and cohesion. Consequently, Ivorian and international institutions have turned their attention to the concept of peace education to regulate and improve a damaged education system. To understand the importance of peace education in Côte d'Ivoire, this article first defines the terms of conflict, education, and peace, delves into the principles of peace education, and finally applies the theoretical framework to the case study of Côte d'Ivoire.


How Japanese Animation Can Help Promote Cultural Diversity

Anime, or Japanese animation, plays a huge role in Japanese media and attracts viewers all over the world. Even though the first Anime were created in the early 20th century, themes and art-style of modern Anime differ hugely from its original form due, in part, to globalization and its increased global popularity. This essay will review how Japanese media may embrace more multiculturalism and cultural education.



Cultural Diversity and Sustainable Development for Peace